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how to replace a starter on 1995 gmc 1500


The starting motor is a

The starting motor is a specially designed, direct current electric motor capable of producing a great amount of power for its size. One thing that allows the motor to produce a great deal of power is its tremendous rotating speed. It drives the engine through a tiny pinion gear (attached to the starter's armature), which drives the very large flywheel ring gear at a greatly reduced speed. Another factor allowing it to produce so much power is that only intermittent operation is required of it. Thus, little allowance for air circulation is required, and the windings can be built into a very small space.

The starter is usually located on the lower right-side (4.3L engines) or on the lower left-side ( 2.2L engines).

TESTING



Before removing the starter for repair or replacement, check the condition of all circuit wiring for damage. Inspect all connection to the starter motor, solenoid, ignition switch, and battery, including all ground connections. Clean and tighten all connections as required.

Check all switches to determine their condition. Vehicles equipped with manual transmission have a clutch safety switch attached to the clutch pedal bracket which closes when the clutch is depressed. Vehicles equipped with automatic transmissions have a manual interlock in the steering column which does not allow the ignition switch to turn to the start position unless the transmission is in the Park or Neutral position.

Check the battery to ensure that it is fully charged. For more information on battery service, please refer to

of this repair guide.

Check the battery cables for excessive resistance as follows:



CAUTION
To prevent possible injury from a moving vehicle or operating engine, engage the parking brakes, block the drive wheels, place the manual transmission in Neutral or the automatic transmission in Park, and disconnect the battery feed at the distributor before performing these tests.





Check the voltage drop between the negative battery terminal and the vehicle frame by placing one lead of a voltmeter on the grounded battery post (not the cable clamp) and the other lead on the frame. Turn the ignition key to the START position and note the voltage drop.

 

Check the voltage drop between the positive battery terminal (not the cable clamp) and the starter terminal stud. Turn the ignition key to the START position and note the voltage drop.

 

Check the voltage drop between the starter housing and the frame. Turn the ignition key to the START position and note the voltage drop.

 

If the voltage drop in any of the above is more than 1 volt, there is excessive resistance in the circuit. Clean and retest all cables not within specification. Replace as necessary.

 


No Load Test

See Figures 1, 2 and 3




Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 1: Proper connections for the starter no-load test




Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 2: Starter no load test specifications-28-MT series




Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 3: Starter no load test specifications-SD series

Make the test connections as shown in the illustration. Close the switch and compare the rpm, current and voltage readings with the accompanying specification illustration.




Current draw and no load speed within specifications indicates normal condition of the starter motor.

 

Low free speed and high current draw indicates worn bearings, a bent armature shaft, a shorted armature or grounded armature fields

 

Failure to operate with high current draw indicates a direct ground in the terminal or fields, or frozen bearings.

 

Failure to operate with no current draw indicates an open field circuit, open armature coils, broken brush springs, worn brushes or other causes which would prevent good contact between the commutator and the brushes.

 

A low no load speed and low current draw indicates high internal resistance due to poor connections, defective leads or a dirty commutator.

 

High free speed and high current draw usually indicate shorted fields or a shorted armature.

 



REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



Two Wheel Drive
1994 MODELS

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2.  
  3. Raise and support the front of the truck safely using jackstands.
  4.  
  5. Remove the cover in order to provide access to the flywheel.
  6.  
  7. Tag and disconnect the solenoid wiring.
  8.  
  9. For the 2.2L engine, remove the attaching bracket-to-engine mount bolt.
  10.  
  11. Remove the starter-to-engine block bolts. When removing the last bolt, be sure to support the starter to keep it from falling and possibly injuring you.
  12.  
  13. Carefully lower the starter and shims (if equipped) from the vehicle.
  14.  
  15. If necessary, remove the bracket (2.2L engine) or the shield (4.3L engine) from the starter assembly.
  16.  


To install:

  1. If removed, install the bracket or shield to the starter, as applicable. Tighten the bracket nuts to 97 inch lbs. (11 Nm) or the shield nuts to 106 inch lbs. (12 Nm).
  2.  
  3. Carefully raise the starter and shims (if equipped) into position in the vehicle and thread one of the retaining bolts to hold it in position.
  4.  
  5. On the 2.2L engine, loosely install the bracket-to-engine mount bolt.
  6.  
  7. Install the remaining starter mounting bolt, then tighten all mounting fasteners to 32 ft. lbs. (43 Nm).
  8.  
  9. Engage the wiring to the solenoid as noted during removal.
  10.  
  11. Install the flywheel cover.
  12.  
  13. Remove the jackstands and carefully lower the truck.
  14.  
  15. Connect the negative battery cable.
  16.  


1995-97 4.3L MODELS and 1995-99 2.2L models

See Figures 4 through 10




Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 4: Starter motor and related components-1996-97 2.2L engine




Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 5: The starter motor on later model 4.3L engines is retained by two long bolts




Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 6: Unfasten the nut that attaches the brace rod to the transmission bellhousing-2.2L engine shown




Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 7: Remove the drivers side wheel to access the solenoid wires through the opening in the wheel well-2.2L engine shown




Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 8: Location of the starter motor attaching bracket-to-engine bolt-2.2L engine shown




Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 9: Location of the starter mounting bolts-2.2L engine shown




Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 10: After all the mounting bolts have been unfastened, slide the starter motor forward, tilt the rear end up and remove the starter motor. This may involve a little bit of twisting and turning but it will come out

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2.  
  3. Raise and support the front of the truck safely using jackstands.
  4.  
  5. If necessary for access, disconnect the front exhaust pipe.
  6.  
  7. If equipped, remove the starter heat shield.
  8.  
  9. On the 2.2L engine, remove the brace rod from the front of the engine and the bell housing.
  10.  
  11. On 2.2L engines, remove the drivers side wheel to access the starter motor wires and the starter motor attaching bracket-to-engine bolt through the opening in the wheel well.
  12.  
  13. Disengage the wires from the starter solenoid.
  14.  
  15. On the 2.2L engine, remove the attaching bracket-to-engine mount bolt.
  16.  
  17. Remove the starter-to-engine block bolts. When removing the last bolt, be sure to support the starter to keep it from falling and possibly injuring you.
  18.  
  19. Carefully lower the starter and shims (if equipped) from the vehicle.
  20.  
  21. If necessary, remove the bracket (2.2L engine) or the shield (4.3L engine) from the starter assembly.
  22.  


To install:

  1. If removed, install the bracket or shield to the starter, as applicable. Tighten the bracket nuts to 97 inch lbs. (11 Nm) or the shield nuts to 106 inch lbs. (12 Nm).
  2.  
  3. Carefully raise the starter and shims (if equipped) into position in the vehicle and thread one of the retaining bolts to hold it in position.
  4.  
  5. On the 2.2L engine, loosely install the bracket-to-engine mount bolt.
  6.  
  7. Install the remaining starter mounting bolt, then tighten all mounting fasteners to 32 ft. lbs. (43 Nm).
  8.  
  9. Engage the wiring to the solenoid as noted during removal.
  10.  
  11. On the 2.2L engine, install the brace rod and tighten the retainers.
  12.  
  13. If disconnected for access, install the front exhaust pipe and tighten the fasteners.
  14.  
  15. If equipped, install the starter heat shield.
  16.  
  17. On 2.2L engines, install the drivers side wheel.
  18.  
  19. Remove the jackstands and carefully lower the truck.
  20.  
  21. Connect the negative battery cable.
  22.  


1998-99 4.3L models

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2.  
  3. Raise the vehicle and support it with safety stands.
  4.  
  5. Disconnect the wires from the starter solenoid.
  6.  
  7. Unfasten the starter motor mounting bolts.
  8.  
  9. If equipped, note the location of the shims. This will help during reassembly.
  10.  
  11. Remove the starter motor and if equipped, the shims.
  12.  


To install:

  1. Place the starter motor into position.
  2.  
  3. Install the starter motor inboard bolt but do not tighten it at this time.
  4.  


If equipped, install the starter motor shims, then install the outboard starter motor bolt. Tighten the bolts to 32 ft. lbs. (43 Nm).

  1. Attach the wires to the solenoid and lower the vehicle.
  2.  
  3. Connect the negative battery cable.
  4.  


Four Wheel Drive
except utility models

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2.  
  3. In some cases it may be easier to access the starter motor bolts if you raise the vehicle, support it with jackstands and remove the wheel assembly.
  4.  
  5. Unbolt the engine mounts, then raise and support the engine using a suitable lifting device.
  6.  
  7. Unbolt the transmission mount and support the transmission assembly.
  8.  
  9. Remove the starter-to-engine bolts and support the starter.
  10.  
  11. Rotate the starter as necessary for access, then tag and disconnect the solenoid wiring.
  12.  
  13. Carefully lower the starter and shims (if equipped) from the vehicle. Note the location of any shims for installation purposes.
  14.  
  15. If necessary, remove the shield from the starter assembly.
  16.  


To install:

  1. Raise the starter into position in the vehicle along with any shims (making sure they are in their original positions), then tighten the mounting bolts to 32 ft. lbs. (43 Nm).
  2.  
  3. If removed, install the shield to the starter assembly and tighten the retaining nuts to 106 inch lbs. (12 Nm).
  4.  
  5. Engage the wiring to the solenoid as noted during removal.
  6.  
  7. Install the transmission mount and remove the supports.
  8.  
  9. Lower the engine and secure the engine mounts, then remove the lifting device.
  10.  
  11. If removed for access, install the wheel assembly.
  12.  
  13. Connect the negative battery cable.
  14.  


utility models

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2.  
  3. Raise the vehicle and support it with jack stands.
  4.  
  5. If equipped, remove the brush end mounting bracket.
  6.  
  7. Disconnect the wiring from the starter solenoid.
  8.  
  9. If equipped, remove the transfer case shield.
  10.  
  11. Unfasten the bolts that attach the brake pipe-to-transmission bracket to the transmission crossmember and remove the brackets.
  12.  
  13. Unfasten the transmission crossmember bolts, (usually three on each side).
  14.  
  15. Unfasten the transmission mount bolts, support the transmission assembly with a transmission jack and slide the transmission crossmember out of the way.
  16.  
  17. Remove the bracket that attaches the transmission cooler lines to the flywheel housing, brace rod to the flywheel housing, and/or the lower flywheel housing as necessary.
  18.  
  19. If equipped, note the location of the shims. This will help during reassembly.
  20.  
  21. Unfasten the starter motor mounting bolts.
  22.  
  23. Remove the starter and if equipped, the starter shims.
  24.  


To install:

  1. If equipped, install the shims in their original locations, then place the starter motor into position.
  2.  
  3. Install the starter motor bolts and tighten them to 33 ft. lbs. (45 Nm).
  4.  
  5. If removed, install the lower flywheel cover.
  6.  
  7. If equipped, attach the transmission line bracket to the housing and the brace rod to the housing.
  8.  
  9. Place the crossmember into position and tighten the retaining bolts.
  10.  
  11. If equipped, install the transfer case shield.
  12.  
  13. Attach the solenoid wiring.
  14.  
  15. If equipped, install the brush end bracket and tighten the nuts to 97 inch lbs. (11 Nm).
  16.  
  17. Connect the negative battery cable and lower the vehicle.
  18.  
  19. Start the vehicle to check for proper operation.
  20.  


SHIMMING THE STARTER



See Figures 11 and 12




Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 11: Checking the gap between the starter pinion and flywheel




Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 12: Shimming the starter motor

Starter noise during cranking and after the engine fires is often a result of too much or tool little distance between the starter pinion gear and the flywheel. A high pitched whine during cranking (before the engine fires) can be caused by the pinion and flywheel being too far apart. Likewise, a whine after the engine starts (as the key is released) is often a result of the pinion-flywheel relationship being too close. In both cases flywheel damage can occur. Shims are available in various sizes to properly adjust the starter on its mount. In order to check and adjust the shims, you will also need a flywheel turning tool, available at most auto parts stores or from any auto tool store or salesperson.

If your car's starter emits the above noises, follow the shimming procedure below:

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2.  
  3. Raise and support the vehicle safely using jackstands.
  4.  
  5. Remove the torque converter/flywheel cover from the bottom of the bell housing.
  6.  
  7. Using the flywheel turning tool, turn the flywheel and examine the flywheel teeth. If damage is evident, the flywheel should be replaced.
  8.  


Most starters are equipped with an access hole in which a small screwdriver or prybar may be inserted to push the starter pinion outward into contact with the flywheel.

  1. Move the starter pinion and clutch assembly so the pinion and flywheel teeth mesh. If necessary, rotate the flywheel so that a pinion tooth is directly in the center of the two flywheel teeth and on the centerline of the two gears, as shown in the accompanying illustration.
  2.  


Normal pinion-to-flywheel clearance is about 0.01-0.06 in. (0.5-1.5mm).

  1. Check the pinion-to-flywheel clearance by using a 0.020 in. (0.5mm) wire gauge (a spark plug wire gauge may work here, or you can make your own). Make sure you center the pinion tooth between the flywheel teeth and the gauge - NOT in the corners, as you may get a false reading. If the clearance is under this minimum, shim the starter away from the flywheel by adding 0.04 in. (1mm) shims one at a time to the starter mount. Check clearance after adding each shim, but do not use more than 2 shims.
  2.  
  3. If the clearance is over 0.060 in. (1.5mm), shim the starter towards the flywheel. Broken or severely mangled flywheel teeth are also a good indicator that the clearance here is too great. Shimming the starter towards the flywheel is done by adding shims to the outboard starter mounting pad only. Check the clearance after each shim is added. Add 0.013 in. (0.33mm) shims at this location, one at a time, but do NOT add a total of more than 4 shims.
  4.  


SOLENOID REPLACEMENT



Most starters covered by this information are equipped with replaceable solenoids. In all cases, the starter must first be removed from the vehicle for access.

  1. Remove the starter and place it on a workbench.
  2.  
  3. Remove the screw and the washer from the motor connector strap terminal.
  4.  
  5. Remove the two solenoid retaining screws.
  6.  
  7. Twist the solenoid housing clockwise to remove the flange key from the keyway in the housing and remove.
  8.  


To install:

  1. Place the return spring on the plunger and place the solenoid body on the drive housing.
  2.  
  3. Turn solenoid counterclockwise to engage the flange key.
  4.  
  5. Install the two retaining screws, then install the screw and washer which secures the strap terminal.
  6.  
  7. Install the starter on the vehicle.
  8.  


 


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